Anthropology Fall 2011″Elements that Exist in Every Culture”

Known for focuses on non-western communities: Europe, Americas, New Zealand, Settled Places

Complex: China, Japan, India, Middle East

Non-Complex: New Guinea, Amazon, Africa, Indigenous, Peasant, Exist within larger nations.

Look at the way cultures interact with one another. 

Elements that Exist in Every Culture

  • Superstructures: religion, science, art, music, sports, dance 
  • Structures: Domestic Economy/Political Economy: Family/Kinship, organization, gender/age roles. Patters of class, caste, mode of political organization
  • Infrastructures: Mode of production. technology, work patterns, geographic environment, physical environment/ Birth and death rates, size & density populations, rates of population growth, technology of birth and population control.

Infrastructure determines how cultures can be structured.




Ethnography: is based on fieldwork. It is the period of time a cultural anthropologist spends in the local community (of culture being studied). One Year Matters. Seasonality is very important. A schedule of events based on the calendar: hunting, festival, rituals, farming. Acclimated Linguistically.

Field Techniques: 1.) Participant Observation 2.) Interviews: Genealogical, Life History, Problem-oriented, Longitudinal, Team research.

“As biased free as you can be.” 


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