Time: After Age of Reform/1876-1920
- Before Diaz
- Diaz established elite consensus
- Before Diaz there was absolute inability for liberals and conservatives to get along- to agree on anything
- Elite Consensus was ab sent completely from Mexican politics
- Before Diaz was international crises and invasions
- Before Diaz there were fiscal deficits (inability to generate income)
- Before Diaz there was civil war. (Remember Santa Anna?)Diaz takes reparations and invests them in Mexico.
- Reparation: 1. the making of amends for a wrong one has done, by paying money to or otherwise helping those who have been wronged. “the courts required a convicted offender to make financial reparation to his victim”
- Before Diaz there were Coups- there was lack of order
- Coup:a sudden, violent, and illegal seizure of power from a government. “he was overthrown in an army coup”
- PS: Diaz was a war hero
- Political Order: No more Coups
- Elite Consensus: Balance between liberal & conservative interests
- Promise of the Plan of Tuxpetc: introducing term limits (didn’t exactly happen)
- Use of Rurales: to maintain ‘order’ in countryside
- “Everyone has an ideology”
- Ideology: a system of ideas and ideals, esp. one that forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy.
- Diaz encouraged foreign investment
- Fiscal Solvency– debt crisis ended (Mexico became fiscally solvent)
- Expansion of Mexican import and export markets
- (“Mexico is resource rich- even today. That is why the president of France is there, reconnecting the rather turbulent history France and Mexico have had.”)
- Foreign direct investment by France, USA, & Britain.
- Used USA reparations money for economic improvements.
- (Interesting thoughts I heard to include in analysis paper: What would history be like if Mexico had maintained it’s gold supply, its oil supply- if the Mexican border when to Canada. What would life be like? Beginning of Us Century is right after that [spanish-american war where US gained Mexican territory.] Would the balance be tipped in a different direction…)
- Improvements to infrastructure– railroads, bridges, electricity, for streets, cars– features of 19th century city life- in Mexican cities.
- Intense investment of Infrastructure.
- In the Cities
- in the cities
- in the cities
- Population expansion of middle class- meant expansion of a taxable community.
- This is turning point for Mexico.
- (Remember if you are ever going to be president that if your country gets a middle class you get to tax people- heavily.)
Porfirio Presidency: Another Side
- Term limits disregarded
- In order to help keep plan in action- put stooges to run in his place
- De jure and De Facto dictator
- Invariable, he was the one in control. He put in place those who would support his presidency.
- Rurales: used against opponents in the countryside
- Paro y palo: bread & stick
- He would give you one thing, but if you stepped out of line he would send them after you
- Suppression of opposing view.
- Subsidized newspaper.
- Got rid of a lot of corrupt, redirected some corruption-wealthy elites corrupting government officials with his friends.
- Increased foreign ownership of Mexican resources (silver mines, oil, mineral deposits)
- “People sucking blood weren’t just from overseas, but from Mexico itself”
- Industrialization- Mexico needed to industrialize- it didn’t
- Industrial countries investing in non-industrial resources, raw materials go elsewhere for refinement
- Although economically solvent, dependency issues start to rise.