Karl Marx: Selected Writings

Analysis Paper Research

1848 And After

Bourgeois and Proletarians

“The discovery of America, the rounding of the Cape, opened up fresh ground for the rising bourgeoisie. The East Indian and Chinese markets, the colonization of America, trade with the colonies, the increase in the means of exchange and in commodities generally, gave to commerce, to navigation, to industry, an impulse never before known, and thereby, to the revolutionary element in the tottering feudal society, a rapid development.” (222)

“Modern industry has established the world-market, for which the discovery of America paved the way. This market  has given an immense development to commerce, to navigation, to communication by land.” (223)

‘This proportion as industry, commerce, navigation, railways extended, in the same proportion the bourgeoisie developed, increased its capital, and pushed into the background every class handed down from the Middle Ages.” (223)

“The bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionizing the instruments of production, and thereby the relations of production, and thereby the relations of production, and with them the whole relations of society.” (224)

“The need of a constantly expanding market for its products chases the bourgeoisie over the whole surface of the globe. It must nestle everywhere, settle everywhere, establish connection everywhere.”  (224)

“It compels all nations, on pain of extinction, to adopt the bourgeois mode of production; it compels them to introduce what it calls civilization into their midst, i.e., to become bourgeois themselves.” (225)

“In one world, it creates a world after its own image.” (225)

“What else does the history ideas prove, than that intellectual production changes its character in proportion as material production is changes? The ruling ideas of each age have ever been the ideas of its ruling class.” (236)

Bourgeois: of or characteristic of the middle class, typically with reference to its perceived materialistic values or conventional attitudes.

29. Grundrisse 

“The farther back we go into history, the more the individual and, therefore, the producing individual seems to depend on and belong to a large whole: at first it is, quite naturally, the family and the clan,which is but an enlarged family; later on, it is the community growing up into its different forms out of the clash and the amalgamation of clans. It is only in the eighteenth century, in ‘civil society,’ that the different forms of social union confront the individual as a mere means to his private ends, as an external necessity.” (346)

The Rise and Downfall of Capitalism

“It is necessary to produce a precise analysis of the concept of capital, since it is the basic concept of modern economics just as capital itself, which is its abstract reflection, is the basis of bourgeois society.” (362)

” Capital is the immediate unity of product and money or, better, of production and circulation.” (363)

Karl Marx: Economy, Class and Social Revolution

New York: Scribner, [c1971]

Marx, Karl


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