Modern Latin American History: Neocolonialism in Cuba & Haiti

–we didn’t really get to Haiti much, but this is it. 

Two contrasting Concepts

Cuban Revolution Review 

As it is in its Historical Context:

CUBA:– neocolonialism post colonial arrangement -what happens to countries after colonization- no colonial infrastructure; economies controlled by elsewhere. On paper it is Sovereign Territorial independence, political governance

21st Century Example: Russia & Ukraine: Neocolonial relationship 

Part I: Cuba: Independence 1860 Grito De Yara, Cespedes, 1st installment of 10 years war, Patron Saint of Cuban Independence. Act 1: Ten Years Wars- Installed a liberal republic Spain Queen Isabella II General Lesundi fearing Spanish Liberal republic in Spain. Mobilised voluntaries. Brutal 10 year’s war begins. Cub is racially polarized at this time. Heavily. General Campos arrived in 1877 in Cuba, peace talks. Pact of Zanjon. Freedom for enslaved rebels. Amnesty, racial integration, political reform. Left off: Complete slavery. Independence. Long past US Civil War. Antonio Maceo and Protest of Baragua , Indepdencence & End of Slavery, that was Part I now U.S. comes into story and this is part II.

Part II: Widespread period of Liberalism. Industrail sense of term. Slavery abolished 1886 in Cuba. Cuba remained under Spanish rule. Spanish purposeful to keep white Cuban in existence. The Cuban Revolution 1898. US: How do we fit these colonies, without their being disruption. *Jose Marti brought together various dissident Cubans to reignite the Cuban Revolution. Second war began w/Cuban dissidents in 1895. More robust tea was undertaken Spanish under different rule. Guerrilla Warefare technique finds its way into Cuban fighting, and its effective.

General Weyler replaced Campos. Weyler led a brutal repression of Cuban Rebel, several death: Marti, Maceo, two leaders dead. decapitated leadership. Weyler proceeded with concentration camps, 300,000 forced into them, taken from their homes at gunpoint. To weaken support rebels in the hill. This became a public relations disaster. Weyler walked right into the yellow journalist propaganda standpoints. (no idea what that means.) 

Larger Question: U.S. wantes to annex certain parts of Caribbean, someone make this happen without dispute-

Prelude to Spanish American War. Industrialists in Spain looking for raw materials in Latin America. How does one fit this in context w/ policies (larger sugar context) Stories of Spanish atrocities and intense criticism of the actions of general Weyler.

“But because of the politics of it, it didn’t go anywhere.”

US President Grover Cleveland pushed back any attempt for US to be involved in Cuban Revolution. However, the new sheriff in town…

Mickinley escalated hostilities against Spain. He needed an incident, The Maine was it. Stir up popular opinion. USS Maine arrives in Cuba 1898 to protect “american property” – the argument in climate of hostility this was dangerous— off goes the Maine. Ultimatum given to Spain. Mickinley marches into Congress, demanding war. Huge war in terms of scale, but very very short.

Ps. Roosevelt was brilliant he had an incredible photographic memory. 

Charge up San Juan Hill near Santiago de Cuba by so called Rough Rider Regiment glorified by US newspaper, US forces at Santiago. Santiago Surrender 1898. Treaty of Paris 1898. Spain ceded Guam, Puerto Rico, & Philippine’s to US. Spain recognized Cuba Independence, Cuba in twilight zone. Epilogue: Anti-Imperialist continue to question US control over Colonies, ends in Phillipines, shifts from fight Spain to US Puerto Rico issues–

Independent Cuba! Palma 1st President, 1902 becomes Republic, Teller Amendment: US relinquishes control over Cuba. Teller Amendment turns into Platt Amendment. Becomes Foundation Cuba anti US feelings. Extremely Important. Price for that independence was Platt Amendment. 

HAITI: Declared Independent 1804- Expansion Import/Export sector dominated by forge in, lack of choice in sector, coffee rising, peasantry pay for it, lack of choice- Inability for them to maintain surplus, exploration peasant, coffee owned by general de colour/elite = Issues. 

Dessalines 1804 President assassinated 1806 wanted to start farming system. 

  • Before Embargo $167 million per year (1806) $121, 832, 550 million today.
  • From Sugar.
  • Jefferson Slams On Embargo
  • $1.8 million per year ($35,512,197 today)
  • Look at that loss

Henri Christophe commander in chief of Haiti, Haiti was split North and South. Black controlled the North, Gen De Colour Controlled the South.

North Haiti:

  • rebuilt its fortunes
  • less public freedom
  • more production
  • brutal but effective
  • became King Henri I
  • no debt, improved economy
  • la fermage continued
  • horrendous work and forced labor
  • Henri commits suicide 1820.

South Haiti:

  • Run like a democracy
  • Petion
  • Inability to generate income
  • South had president
  • South had legislature

All was unified under Boyer, began period of gen de colour domination of Haiti, becomes republic system.

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