Period of conflict between liberals & conservatives. Fundamentally influence by European Imperialism. (Industrializing overseas.) Emphasize Economic Liberalism, Private Property. “Must be seen in the context of…”
1850’s Mexican Conservatives: simple, clear, protection of colonial —
— Particularly concerned with protecting the church, especially concerned with protecting Indian communal territory: Protection of the privileges and rights of remaining colonial institutions.
- Roman Catholic Church
- Indian Communal Territory
- Armed Forces
Large Amounts of Land broken up by descendents. Priests come, priests go but church land stays the same. It does not get broken up.
Mexico has huge number of men under arms.
Economic Protectionism: right for government to interfere into the market. Protection of Industry (though like the liberals had formally ask for free trade.) Who supports them: Indian Masses, handed Creole Aristocratic title (what?) , Roman Catholic Clergy & Religious Leadership.
1850’s Mexican Liberals:
- Admirers of North America republicanism, believing the best thing that could happen to Mexico is following in Europe’s Industrialization footsteps.
- Anglo-Saxon Industrialization
- Breaking up of Corporate ownership of land
- Movement toward separation of Church and State: Secularization
- Reduction of clerical power
- Removal of Spanish colonial institutions, no more fueros for clergy.
- Movement toward Smithian style liberal economic. Economic protection and state monopolies
- (“Not talking about 21st Century America perspectives.”)
- Slavery (why is this in here slavery was abolished in Mexico in 1829.)
- Reduction taxes- improvement of fiscal production, of taxing activity…(this is confusing, wants to tax church, I believe)
- Emphasis on private property, federal government, individual responsible government, which is why they went after Indians. They say Indians would do better owning their own land (Individualism)
- Ex: Akin to what became in the mid 1800s the Republican Party of North America.
Large liberal movement across Central America. Support come from:
- Professional middle class Criollo
- or those with liberal sympathies
- Excluded Aristocrats
- Middle Class Movement, understand sympathies to sort of things and lack of sympathies for other sorts of things.
Santa Anna (1853-1855 conservative ruler of Mexico) President of the United States of Mexico again. . Expelled his enemies among the Oaxacon govenor.
Beneito Pablo Juarez Garcia (1806-1879)
- Effective liberal in terms of governance
- Improves Oaxacan Infrastructure
- Governor of Oaxacon 1847
- Indian, was born illiterate, left family went to city, taught himself to read, taught himself Spanish (second language there) Governed Oaxacan as liberal, someone ironic, protecting, defending Indian rights of Mexico.
- “Symbolic of this problem of the period” He had a habit of dousing himself with white powder. There was a Mexican Assumption that Europe had to be emulated physical and mentally.
- This Era moving toward Eugenics, toward Anglo-Saxon Imperialism.
- Context of Social Darwinism minorities dead ed. (Superiority of Races.)
- Exiled to New Orleans USA 1968 by Santa Anna.
- Struggle its heart of Latin America, emulate inside (Themselves) vs emulate outside (Europe)
Liberals banded together and write Plan of Ayutla,(something like that spelling) calling for: Expulsion of Santa Anna from government and from national power in Mexico, they empower a congress to compose liberal constitution.
- No middle ground, no attempt at bridge building
- Polarized Politics. (civil war soon to follow.)
Santa Anna was expelled from power in 1855 by this liberal coalition.
Liberals in power immediately slapped on their reforms. Ignacio Comonfort, Burecrrat, became president of Mexico (1855-1857)
What was happening under him, members of his cabinet, notable liberals: Benito Juarez & Sebastian Lerdo de Tejado. Step by step construct the modern Mexican Presidency. Foundations. Last element of foundation: President can only run once. (no more perpetual president.) No liberal had been in power since pre 1833 Santa Anna Farias Vice Presidency.
Ignacio presidency gave liberals all things they had wanted on their wish list for the past 20 years. Passage of three major bodies of law named after these two men- all had to do with the church. Targeting, the church.
- Ley Juarez: Reduction of fueros to military and ecclesiastical tribunals. days of soldiers walking up and knifing someone then getting of scott free was over. No more exemptions from civil and criminal courts.
- Ley Lerdo: Destruction of corporate ownership of property
- Ley Inglesias: Prohibition or at time abolition of high fees for religious sacraments and services, give impression of church as being callous institution.
All these laws became the 1857 Constitution.
ASAP Instituted ASAP overthrown.
Bill of Rights extended the protections to citizens (what this has to do with anything I don’t know.)
A conservative revolt exploded and attempts by President Comonfort to pacify it failed. (It was easy to go into the country side and mount rebellion.)
Mexico dissolved into Civil War: 1858-1860: War of Reform (because of their so polarized government)
Liberals defeated Conservative forces but Conservatives are not going to give up so easily. Assistance comes from an unexpected source.
The Problem of France
- Global Context, British Imperialism often implied overseas conquests
- industrializing states all over the world.
- It like a party every one is at but no body likes anybody that is there. Contesting for Empires.
- Compete each other for raw materials, and for captial and for labor.
- Market. A market for raw resources. All industrializing powers have one.
Franco Mexican Ward (France) 1862-1867 meanwhile American Civil War 1861-
Napoleon III became Emperor of France, 1852-1870 Bonapartism II
Ideology often comes as servant to materialism Crisis: Mexico versus France, Spain and Britian over debt payments.
- refuse to pay debts, debt collector comes, usually warship, called gunboat diplomacy- Veracruz. The import/export town.
Response to debts not being paid: French Invasion in 1862. and captured customs house in Veracruz (saw opportunity to rid liberalism) Supported by conservatives. France invades Mexico: Franco-Mexico War. (argued this is race war, french walked in thinking they will win because they are of superior race.) They lose.
Battalla de Puebla: Mexican force, under General Ignacio Zaragoza defeated french forces May 5, 1862 -showing rhetoric of inferority is problematic. (defeated rather mean-spirited foreigner) *CINCO DE MAYO*
and Napolean sends back 100.000 troops nonetheless
- French occupies Mexico 1862-1867 which assistance and support of conservatives.
- Puppet Emperor Ferdinand Maximilian was invited from Hapsburg to serve as Mexican Head of State and so he does and rules as a constitutional monarch, this annoyed the Mexican church by refusing to return church lands, monopolies.
- Government in trouble, hated by liberals, 60,000 man army is his power, no friends, pleases no one, distrusted by powerful conservatives, civil war was over in USA and they can turn their attention to Mexico.
- France removes troops which strips Maxi of his strongest military force.
- Liberal forces march in and take little Maxi. He was arrested and tried for treason, war crime, he was shot 1867 and
- President Juarez takes his place. Juarez continued liberal reform, began improvements on infrastructure, died in office 1872 while dealing with rebellion of Porfia Diaz.
- Juarez well deserved his title. After Juarez Lerdo de Teja (right) became president of the United States of Mexico and then he was removed by a coup led by Porfia who was sad because he wanted to be president but he didn’t get elected. 1876.