Rhetorical effect? employed for rhetorical effect; especially : asked merely for effect with no answer expected <a rhetorical question>
Despotism: Ruled by a Despot: a ruler who has total power and who often uses that power in cruel and unfair ways
Self-Righteousness: having or showing a strong belief that your own actions, opinions, etc., are right and other people’s are wrong: convinced of one’s own righteousness especially in contrast with the actions and beliefs of others : narrow-mindedly moralistic.
Imprudent: lacking discretion, wisdom, or good judgment<an imprudent investor>
- It’s politically imprudent to stir up such controversy during an election year.
- <a very sweet girl, but so imprudent that no one trusts her with a secret>
The Constitution of 1824. Federalist or Centralist. Centralist Strength: among clergy, Hacendados, army officers. Federalists: liberal criollos, mestizos, students of U.S. Constitution & liberal Spanish document 1812. Centralist Fray saw federal system worked for U.S. but would not work for Mexico & and said Mexico would weaken instead, because the experience had been entirely different for US than Mexico. (Independence.) Although the revolutionary mindset was the same… ?
242: Fray Servando argues: “They (speaking of the United States) were already separate and independent one from another. They federalized themselves in union against the oppression of England; to federalize ourselves, now united, is to divide ourselves and to bring upon us the very evils they sought to remedy with their federation. They had already lived under a constitution that, when the name of the king was scratched out, brought forth a republic. We buckled for three hundred years under the weight of an absolute monarch, scarily moving a step toward the study of freedom. We are like children barely out of diapers or like slaves who have just unshackled their chains…we might say that nature itself has decreed of centralization.”
Sapnish Threat. Santa Anna Removes Threat. Federalist-Centralist struggle continues.
Faction: a group within a larger group that has different ideas and opinions than the rest of the group. a party or group (as within a government) that is often contentious or self-seeking : clique:
- The committee soon split into factions.
From Book, 241: “The focus narrowed to a question that on the surface seemed simple enough: should the new republic be federalist or centralist?” …… “The chief spokesmen for the federalists were Miguel Ramos Arizpe from Coahuila and Valentin Gomez Farias from Zacatecas. The centralist cause was championed by Fray Servando Teresa de Mier and Carlos Maria de Bustamante.
242: “It was simply too irresistible for some to attribute the tremendous progress recorded by the United States since its independence to its federal form of government.” …. “In at least one respect the federal system established in 1824 went beyond its U.S. model and gave the states even greater power than those to the north: both the president and the vice-president were to be elected not by popular vote or an electoral collage but by the state legislature, for a term of four years. ”
245: The Victoria presidency: Guadalupe Victoria (1785-1843). Mexico’s first president, Victoria found his term disrupted by the internal chaos that came to dominate the country’s political life in the first half of the nineteenth century. “The Victoria administration was unable to do much about the new nation’s steadily worsening financial situation. For years prior to independence the criollos had argued that the weakness of Mexico’s economy was a result of poor management by the gachupines. But now in power themselves, the criollos could do not better.
246: Second president of Mexico: Vincente Gruerro– more active and decisive than the first, he abolished slavery in September1829, Spanish reconquest of Mexico July 1829– Gruerro puts government in hands of General Santa Anna, Santa Anna got Spanish to leave Mexico– the Spanish threat removed. Now conservatives and liberals go back to their bickering. Vice President takes his conservative party and led an army revolt against a liberal president. Bustamante is now in the presidential office, the conservatives are back in power.
247: Struggle Continues: “Although they cut back on the size of the army and renegotiated the English load, Bustamante was no more able to bring about stability and progress than had his liberal predecessors.”
Mostly all leaders have been shot by now, Guadalupe Victoria is the only one who escaped this fate.
248: “Executing Vicent Guerrero might have satiated the political vengeance of a few but did nothing to stem devastating epidemics, repair pitted road, or nurture a national healing process. Abolishing the caste system scarcely abolished poverty. Emancipating the slaves did not eliminate the malnutrition and illiteracy.” “Santa Anna marshaled his forces once again, overthrew the Bustamante government, and returned to Veracruz to revel in his latest victory and await the outcome of the 1833 presidential elections.”