From Empire to Republic: Mexico: “Civil Wars are Destructive” Feb. 18

Meixco: Central federal to republic back to central federal government. Mexico after Revolution Plan of Iguala: Independence, Equality, Monarchy. This is the costliest war (Mexican American War) America as fought up to this point, in terms of resources. By swallowing Texas, America set foundation for civil war that would later occur.

The Mexican Empire 1821-1824

Both born in same revolution mindset, America and Mexico, America literally wneto stratosphere when they found that land- but had to go through civil war 1st. Territory to north was part of viceroyalty of New Spain (Mexico) before Revolution. 1821 Mexico has post revolution challenges. Mexico was victimized by Bourbon, taxes inflicted- ….Bourbon reform problem.

Economy: Left in ruins as a result of revolutionary war. Infrastructure destroyed during war. 10 years of war. Ports, mines (major supplier of silver) Whoever takes over Government will have to rebuild that. Needed Investment. Infrastructure is expensive. Elites in Mexico were strong enough to resist taxation. Because they were not about to pay it. Government desperately needed income. *Bonds* encourage money paid back in land. What did Mexico have a lot of? Land. Large amount of land brought by people, who were not Mexican. The gift that would stop giving quickly for Mexican Government. Demographic: 85% Major Landholders: The Church, Hacendados, Indian Communal Communities: Liberals detested this because it reflected old Mexico imperial spanish Mexico, which did not allow for progress. All of these guys resisted taxation. Considerable distance between the wealthy hacendados and poor. weak. elite. consensus. Conservatives (church, old spanish fuero system, protecting right of Elite, military)  vs. Liberals, Royalists vs. Republicans. Centripetal (toward center) vs. Centrifugal (away from center) Centralized government a system with no division. Centrifugal yes state divisions. Centralis vs. Federalism: Secession w/ federalism- civil war always hanging overhead.

from where I left off: weak political consensus intensified by conservative versus liberal spirit. Conservative in Mexico desired: Protection of the rights of the Mexican Catholic Church. Strong Central Government, particular royal government. Liberals in Mexico desired: wanted US, following the US government model. Federalism. Secularism- Church needed to be strongly reduced economic reasons, landowner that needed to be taxed and political reason— Parts of Plan dissolving 1824, Frustrations with Augustin I. Inability to resolve infastructural issues.  Centralism- Augustin I overthrown in 1824. He doesn’t reolve the infastructure problem. No investment in infrastructure. Just in observed spectacle of empire and that was a mistake Notable presidents of Mexico: Guadalupe Victoria, Vincente Gruerro Saldana, Anastasio Bustamente- Antio Lopez de Santa Anna (two sides to this man).

Mexico Republic: Constituion of 1824. Highly liberal document, created a federal Mexico and was a liberal constitution. 23 with state legislatures, president elected by state legislature, Bicameral state federal legislature- state and house of Deputies Conservatives not happy. At all. Two political pressure groups emerged. Yorquinos= federalists/liberals. Escoces = centralist. post 1824. The Quest for Order Guadalupe presidency dominated by conservatives. Liberals dominated congress before that. Political conflict made Gruerro president of Mexico 1828-1830- Abolition of slavery in 1830 for practical reasons, immigration problem, that federal government has to solve. Immigration problem in Coahulia, Tejas. Slavery was abolished to curtail slavery into Tejas. Fears had arisen that the Spanish would retake Mexico. Gfuerror in 1828 promptly expelled all Spaniards living in Mexico. Spanish-Mexican Civil War. Spanish troops defeated by Santa Anna greatly enhanced Santa Anna’s career. No one can outvote one another. Large number of men underarms unaccountable to court system under new rule of Spanish- meant they were untouchable in carrying out civil war proceedings against him. Gruerro overthrown in a prounciamiento. By now all great leaders have been shot. Eventually replaced by Bustamente. He is Creole, royalist general just like other royal generals who helped crush Hidalgo- transfer from someone who supports central government. He is one who represents  that shift of mindset. Notice in picture lack of civilian government. Conservative failed to rebuild economy. Destroyed by war.  Not going to reform, tax, or touch church. Liberals attacked government- found support in Santa Anna (who never liked being president, but nobody does, believe me.) 1833 President short lived. Santa Anna came to power with help of Liberals. His up became left in charge, he went  back to hacienda, which left liberals in charge, to do as they please and they went after the church. Aspects of Liberal Agenda in Mexico: Advocate Free Market Laisse Faire, turn Indians into private landowners (to tax the land and generate income), The free market was particular for some removal of tithes, customs, duties, tariffs- Privatization of Church (taxed_ which lead to this- abolition of fueros.

Farias Presidency: VP Gomez Frias attack fueros set off firestorm of protest. Lurches the entire Government to hard right. Chruch and army officials begged action from Santa Anna: Conservatives emulating Spain and Europe. Liberals emulating USA. Nobody is emulating Mexico. So Santa Anna promptly fire Frias- he adopted conservative centralism. Sietes Leyes and excessive centralism, conservatives happy, liberals outraged. Series of pre-lincoln presidents had hostile relationship with Mexico. REVOLTS. Mayan Secession (Quintan Roja) Tejas Secession Crisis 1836. The Texas Crisis. Tejas under jurisdiction at Coahuilo, no different from Houston as part of Texas- North American Adventurer- Moses Austin, traveled to Tejas in 1820, planned to establish sttlement of 300 North American families there. Met with Spanish govener and he granted Charter in 1821 believing the Americans would be integrated into Mexican culture. Austin died and  in 1821 his son Stephen Fuller Austin took over the plain. Spain lost the independence war with Mexico. Tejas and Coahuilo were incorporated into the Mexican Empire. Mexico of United States. Last page of notes I don’t know what happened to them, well I do, they are sitting on the desk back in the room catching something on fire. More information on Tejas with the Discussion question 3. This laid the foundations for the Civil War. which one I don’t know, our civil war, the mexican-american war, was that even a civil war I don’t know I didn’t take craft of history before this class and that is the reason I am so fucking lost. I really don’t know my fucking history. Why did I take this class- oh I needed a writing component, and now I’m thinking if I knew better I wouldn’t have but I didn’t so I did and now here I am. What happened at Tejas was the land was selling really fucking cheap. 300 settlers turned into thousands and thousands so much that they outnumbers the mexican 2:1 who originally lived there. Now the Mexican Government is pissed, I mean, these guys are living in our state and they don’t even speak our goddamn language. Then America pipes up oh hey also we want Texas and since all our people are still living there could, we like, uh, just have it? And Santa Anna was like all NO FUCK THAT. and war followed.

Sidenote: I have to find a better way to take class notes. How fucking confusing is that shit. I can’t use that to study!- can’t make any sense out of it- its just me sitting there like a fucking recorder copying down every word I ever hear at speeds pretty darn fast actually. So next time I’ll do the just-get-the-main-points thing and expand on them directly after classs- otherwise…its like 4 pages of fucking jumble and no one understood where I was going with that. The thing is with just main points- I dont. remember. shit. Maybe if its still fresh I’ll get a few coherent thoughts out of the mess. Whatever. Next Tuesday.


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