Latin American History: Saint Domingue Revolution

  • Each Revolution that occurred had the same sort of pattern.
  • Entrenched elite, who thought they had a right to play the role.
  • A privileged elite leader, leading the masses into rebellion.
  • There were many, many rebellions, we focus on two.
  • Children of the age of Revolution.
  • San Domingue is the country before Haiti (1804).
  • 4 Important political ideas to consider…for understanding revolutions
  • Elite consensus: An idea taken from theorist Noam Chomsky.
  • Acknowledges that the elite of a society is composed of several parties.
  • Best societies recognize bottom to top movement.
  • These parties have conflicting interests.
  • But for all differences, they agree on certain issues. In order for them to maintain power, to keep society together- a breakdown of elite consensus- civil war, when elites stop agreeing, through agreement they operate in concert.
  • Authority: unquestioned right of certain party or individual to be obeyed. Authority of traffic light.
  • Legitimacy, acknowledgement of this among ruled, enshrined the ‘customs of the country’ of the laws of the land. Part of people to accept the elite. Cannot ave one without the other. Look at Syria.
  • Nationalism: nation has a right to rule itself badly. Belief that a nation or members have the right to govern themselves and no one outside has the right to say what they are doing is wrong.
  • Revolutionary Trajectory- Breakdown of the elite consensus influence by evens of the French Revolution.
  • French Revolution was the root of it all, all Latin American revolutions.
  • Rebellion started by privileged individuals, always some elite.
  • Drifts- violent rebellions evolve into Revolutions, who ultimately lead the masses.
  • Other communities take up rebellion: Afro-Ladines or enslaved blacks or indians or mestizos
  • There’s a push toward abolitionism or civil equality.
  • Eventual domination by these who originally started the rebellion of the post revolutionary society.
  • Revolutions always drift back to the elite who started it.
  • The French Revolution-Bastille-July 14, 1789-LouisXVI Executed January 1793.
  • This influenced events in the colonies, colonies played a role, especially Saint Domingue.
  • To what effect did Saint Domingue contribute: Part1 (1791-1794) PartII (1794-98) PartIII (1798-1804).
  • Divided big moments, Haitian Revolution: Divided into two big parts: Saint Domingue Slave Uprising (1791-1803).
  • Haitian Revolution (1802-1804).
  • Political Power influence in Saint Domingue before 1789 was 1% Grand Blanc, And 99% Everybody Else-Presents Problem.
  • After 1789 & rise of the 3rd Estate-Petite Blancs wanted more power from National Assembly given to French Colonies- Influenced by Anglo-American revolution.
  • —Something I missed———–Saint Marc were assembly was established.
  • Grand Blancs, known as Planters, Contested this. Planters formed assembly at Cap. Francois-called club Massiac- fighting over control of Saint Domingue.
  • They were only 10% of population – enslaved made up the other 90%.
  • Gen de Colourer demanded greater right- but if there was one thing these two about could agree on it was that the they would keep Gen de Colourer for gaining power.
  • Dominating fear of Latin American Colonies: Career/Cancer of Republicanism.
  • Civil war & colonial rebellion in Saint Domingue- 1789 French National Assembly.
  • Vincent Oge: Rich Gen de Colouer that attempted to sit at national assembly representing Saint Domingue. Blocked by wealthy Planter- British gives him weapons, armed & dangerous he attempts to sit at National Assembly representing Saint Domingue.
  • Insurgency w/ Jean Baptist Chavannes in 1790. Result: Oge, Chavanne- captured, tortured, killed.
  • Early 1791: becoming obvious there are conflicts.
  • In August plantation torched systematically. Led by Colonial Armed forces, inability to control the insurgency-Hough Boukman Dutty.
  • Huge expansion of violence in the North. (This stuff were going over is The Saint Domingue Uprising.)
  • Literally the entire country side lit up by burning plantations- now impossible to contain rebellion.
  • Initially led by, Hough Boukman Dutty, he Jamaican, he killed early one.
  • Francois-Dominique-Toussaint- Libre Noire Louvatuere Brede (1743-1803). Enslaved coachman and descendant of royalty. Medicine Man, understood European fighting, enslaved coachman, descendant of royalty, joined uprising 1791, miliarty genius, knows how to use circumstances rather than circumstances use him. Noted for his military abilities and military abilities are created his own band of soldiers and changed their tactics of fighting.
  • Jean-Jaque Dessalines (1758-1806) Born into slavery at the plantation at Cormiers, Enslaved field slave & commander, subjected to cruelty, later owned by a libre noir. Military genius known for ruthlessness. Joined Boukman Rebellion 1791.
  • Henri Christophe (1766-1820) Born in St. Kitts or Grenada. Emulated British, didn’t particularly like French. Brought to domingue in 1770s, obtained freedom, fought in Anglo-American revolution-good example of dangerous threat of republicanism. France unable to control rebellion.
  • Christophe joined the Spanish when LouisXIV was executed.
  • 1793 has the largest and most powerful in Saint Domingue
  • British were successful in invading Saint Domingue looking like they would get a fat new sugar colony.
  • 1792: Three commissioners sent to govern Saint Domingue. One was Leger Feliciti-
  • British invading from south 1793, many white colons support British. French revolution in Saint Domingue surrounded by enemies. Sonthonax decided on a Machiavellian political act with great ramifications- he recommends the abolition of slavery in 1793.
  • 1794- French National Assembly declared the end of slave and end of slave trade. Toussain Louverture brought his army from Spanish over to French. and that ended it
  • French Republic as Jocib with? his massive army his army defeated the British.
  • Toussain placed under Sonthonax 1797.
  • 1798- Toussain has Sonthonax replaced.
  • Toussain became the 1st black appointed as opener of British Territory..(2nd ever?) He attempted to rebuild sugar colony- La Fermage.
  • Signed trade with Adams Administration in U.S. 1799 wrote constitution recognizing him as governor for life of Saint Domingue. (this set fire- but for who/where again?)
  • Actions controversial- La Fermage- slaves fled to mountains, rebellion among them.
  • Bonaparte’s Dream: create an American Empire that would sweep British off and they take who thing../whole thing?  to create a French Latin American Empire. Possible only if Saint Domingue went back to colony as before and having return them to slavery. No La-Fermage. Slavery.
  • Bonaparte was like a dog waging his tail looking at two things, not knowing what to do.
  • He had to defeat 3 major people and he did.
  • 1802 War of Independence
  • Jean Jacques Dessalines (right) led an independence movement against Napoleonic France.
  • France was ousted and Saint Domingue would become Haiti.
  • French surrounded by British fleet, gave him one chance to get his boat and leave and he left

By now I have no idea what is going on. I am so in over my head in this class. Hispanola, Cuba, Haiti, Santo Domingue, some of those places are actually the same place idk dates, people, places, revolutions, different kinds of people because or interracial mixing, class systems, rich, poor, enslaved the whole SHEBANG THIS IS IT.

And Good. Lord. is it a lot to remember. being that I personally can’t remember what I did an hour ago- no exaggeration its some sort of mental illness the internet never lies.

Saint Louisiana purchase in large part continue to finance….well I don’t know what the end of that sentence was or what the Louisiana Purchase continued to finance. Then I have here that France contained the eastern part of Haiti until 1809 and then gave it to the Spanish. That’s why all these words are fucking confusing for the average human- they are spanish and french and english and some are French and Spanish and i don’t know I know Latin is dead but hell this is before colonization it could be in there somewhere. And yeah I know most kids these days are bilingual because its the smart thing to do and maybe your parents are rich I don’t know but that didn’t really work out for me because slackers don’t get that far in life the end.

Now we move on to MEXXXICOO! Same system Same problem. So Mexico had the same system as Saint Dominge and the same problem. Well damn I don’t know what that was. All revolutions start from what Napolean did, in disrupting the elite consensus. Ok so I’m getting there was a break down in elite consensus. Which would make perfect sense being that is mother of why all civil wars occur. This eventually is going to lead up to the Chapters I was required to read for my own Goddamns enrichment. 

French armies invaded Spain in 1808. Carlos IV abdicated in favor  of his son Fernando. There is no king. There is no one to establish legitimacy and authority. Bonaparte put his brother Joseph on the throne. Well, he’s not legit. So everyone’s like: you’re not legit. Now there is no legitimate king of Spain. Who are the people going to listen to? NO ONE. Napoleon sent 118,000 soldiers to support Joseph. The supreme Council at Seville fled to Cadiz. There are several councils opening up all over Latin America where it is under seize. All equal as one in Spain and of course, why should we listen to them, its not like they have any legitimacy either.  If there is a missing person to make laws we have: one big fat issue. The ‘decapitation’ of the Spanish and Portuguese empires undermined the authority — types of councils: 1. Central Junta in Spain. 2. –no sure didn’t get that. Criollos of New Spain: Rejected authority of Central Junta in Spain, formed Cabildo Abierto to make decision related to Spain. Royalists won’t have it-(omg that fucking Lorde song…”and we’ll never be Royyyyallls..Royyalls” Make sure you get the harmony on that) ——-Fr. Miguel Hidalgo y Castillo—-this is someone that I’ll probably be tested on and maybe I should remember him I don’t know maybe he’s important. Attacking the government of Spanish Hidalgo y Castillo is. Delivered Grito de Dolores 1810 (declaration) Hidalgo was replaced by Afro-mexican priest (well that was short) Fr. Jose Maria Moreluos y Pavon. REBELLION ALL OVER MEXICO. 

Plan of Iguala: Independence, abolition of slavery, mexican monarch- 1st Criollo Emperor of New Spain, Augustin 1- I discuss this man next set of notes he’s not a real winner I mean look at him he made it in the history books but the books did not have many great things to say about him it was a lot of look guys, I know he’s the first emperor and all so we have to mention him but he’s a real self-righteous jackass so let’s just give him a few paragraphs, get this guy out of the way, and move onto Santa Anna which who everyone know, is the real war hero of this time. 

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