Why did Cuba not mover forward toward revolution with other Spanish American colonies?
- 1823: African American out numbered whites in Cuba. Several slave rebellions. Creoles (Spaniard born in Cuba) made common cause with them. On the other hand, there was also a movement for annexation by US (defeat of south and abolition of slavery in the US ended support for annexation.)
- 1868: Carlos Manvel de Cespede (revolutionary), issued Grito de Yara-
- 10 years war starts.
- 1868- 1878
- 1879 : Convention of Zanjon brought civil war- this enabled Cubans to elect representatives to the Spanish cortes (parliament), but not suppress the desire for independence.
- 1895 rebellion flares.. 2nd war of independence.
- 1895: Jose Marti, organized the movement- neither nationalist nor Spaniards could gain the upper hand.
- US is concerned for its investments in Cuba
- 1898: US Battleship The Maine explodes in Havana.
- 1898: US declares war on Spain.
- 1898: Spain offers Cuba truce, Cuba fight with US
- 1898: The battle of Santiago de Cuba on July 3. (largest naval engagement during the Spanish American war) destruction of the Spanish Caribbean Squadron.
- 1898: Spanish withdraw from Cuba.
- 1898: Cubans get independence from Spain.
- 1898 April: Teller Amendment: presented obstacles for American businessmen to get land.
- 1898 Dec: peace was signed. US occupies Cuba.
- 1899: Cuba was handed to US.
- Spain loses all New World Colonies except Cuban/ Puerto Rico.
- The Cuban Economy was dominated by American capital.
- Deepening relations with United States.
- 1st country to produce 1 million tons sugar
- 90% of harvest goes to US. Continued struggle for independence.
- Cuba was politically Spanish, Economically dependent on US, (Reliant on a single product and largely one market.)
- 1901: Platt Amendment, Platt Constitution: Cuban constitution gives US oversight of Cuban finances, the right to permanent military bases on the island, and controls Cuba’s ability to enter into treaties with foreign governments. “mortgaged independence.”
- 1902: Cuba gained formal independence.
- 1902-1906:1st President: Tomas Estrada Palma
- New republic was constrained by Platt Amendment to the constitution. (Protectorate: partial control/superior power)
- Cubans under US military occupation, until 1934
- 1934 Platt Amendment repealed
- US Naval base at Guantanamo Bay until 2033
Ten Year’s war- little war-Spanish American War
Treaty of Paris
McKinley Bill: led to high concentration of land ownership by Americans
While some powerful Cuban landowners continued to favor independence via annexation by the US to so as to preserve their economic position, others sought absolute independence leading to immediate end to slavery and the establishment of a representative of a democracy on the island.
Spain remained intransigent and refused to consider political reforms, which would give the colony more autonomy within empire—