Open Veins of Latin America


  1. Penury:  a cramping and oppressive lack of resources (as money);especially :  severe poverty
  2. Oligarch: a person who belongs to a small group of people who govern or control a country, business, etc.
  3. Usufruct:  the legal right of using and enjoying the fruits or profits of something belonging to anotherTandem
  4. Erroneously: containing or characterized by error :  mistaken <erroneous assumptions> <gave an erroneous impression>
  5. Semblance: the state of being somewhat like something but not truly or fully the same thing, outward and often specious appearance or show :  form<wrapped in a semblance of composure — Harry Hervey>
  6. Expropriationspecifically :  the action of the state in taking or modifying the property rights of an individual in the exercise of its sovereignty.<the development of the colony involved expropriation of large tracts of fertile farmland from the natives
  7. Usurpation: a :  to seize and hold (as office, place, or powers) in possession by force or without right <usurp a throne>
    :  to take or make use of without right <usurped the rights to her life story> :  to take the place of by or as if by force :  supplant <must not let stock responses based on inherited prejudice usurpcareful judgment>
  8. Disintegration: to break apart into many small parts or pieces.
  9. Syncretism: the combination of different forms of belief or practice.
  10.  Proprietor: one granted ownership of a colony (as one of the original American colonies) and full prerogatives of establishing a government and distributing land.
  11. Exploited: make full use of and derive benefit from (a resource)
  12. Alluvial: relating to, composed of, or found in alluvium <alluvial soil><alluvial diamonds>..made up of or found in the materials that are left by the water of rivers, floods, etc
  13. Coveted: to wish for greatly or with envy <covet another’s success> <covet a friend’s possessions>
  14. Malefactors: 1 : one who is guilty of a crime or offense 2 : one who does evil
  15. Henequen: a strong hard fiber obtained from the leaves of a tropical American agave and used to make twine; also : a plant that produces henequen.
  16. Abysmally: extremely poor or bad; having immense or fathomless extension downward, backward, or inward <an abysmal cliff>
  17. Peon: 1 : a member of the landless laboring class in Spanish America
    2 : a person who does hard or boring work for very little money : a person who is not very important in a society or organization
  18. Dispensation: a system of rules for ordering affairs b : a particular arrangement especially of nature
    2 : release from a rule or from a vow or oath–permission to break a law or an official promise you have made.

  19. Conquistadores: a leader in the Spanish conquests of America, Mexico, and Peru in the 16th century.
  20. Avarice: insatiable desire for wealth or gain.
  21. Strychnine: Strychnine is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents.
  22. Altiplano communities :(Spanish for “high plain”)
  23. Voracious: having or showing a tendency to eat very large amounts of food.
  24. Intermediaries: a person who acts as a link between people in order to try to bring about an agreement or reconciliation; a mediator.
  25. Quintessence: 1 : the purest form of something. 2 : the most perfect type or example 
  26. Ecclesiastical: of or relating to the Christian Church or its clergy.
  27. Austere: severe or strict in manner, attitude, or appearance.
  28. Contrabandist: <contrabandists supplying the rebels with guns>
  29. Prostrate:  stretched out with face on the ground in adoration or submission; also :  lying flat :  completely overcome and lacking vitality, will, or power to rise <was prostrate from the heat>
  30. Insolvent: the fact or state of being insolvent :  inability to pay debts
  31. Bastion:  some place or something that gives protection against attack <a bastion of democracy> – a place or system in which something (such as an old-fashioned idea) continues to survive.
  32. Littoral: of, relating to, or having a coast
  33. Latifundio–minifundio land tenure structure:
    The land tenure structure of Latin America is called as the ‘Latifundio–minifundio’ land tenure structure. This dualistic tenure system is characterized by relatively few large commercial estates known as latifundios, which are over 500 hectares and numerous small properties known as minifundios, which are under 5 hectares. Minifundios are mainly subsistence-oriented smallholdings and are generally farmed by indigenous and peasant households
  34. Conventional:  used and accepted by most people : usual or traditional; of a kind that has been around for a long time and is considered to be usual or typical: common and ordinary : not unusual

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