Maps, Scales and Projections: Map- generalized view of an area, as seen from above & reduced in size. Scale– ratio of map units to ground units. Projection– process of transforming spherical Earth to flat map. Projection Distortions: distance, direction, shape, area, proximity, cylindrical, conic, oval and planar
Isoline Maps: Isolines are lines connecting points of equal value on a map. Isobars: Points of equal atmospheric pressure. Isotherms: Points of equal air temperature. Isohyets: Points of equal precipitation amounts. Isopachs: illustrates thickness variations within a tabular unit, layer or stratum.Isopachs are contour lines of equal thickness over an area. Contours: a. The outline of a figure, body, or mass. b. A line that represents such an outline.
Active & Passive Remote Sensing- Examples: LiDar, Gis System Model, —
What environmental challenges are we facing? (One kid says- “6x’s amount of people on the planet than the planet can harbor.”) So- population, pollution, resources, climate change, poverty, de-forestation, desertification, food, biodiversity- to name a few. World in crisis? Earth is the only source of raw materials and energy. The Earth is 4.5 Billion years old (great but how is this relevant.) Modern humans appeared in Africa 195,000 ybp. Human populations have grown & expanded in range. Technology has allowed humans to live better- at least in developed nations. Oh fun fact- Norway is the most techonological advanced country, not Japan, not China- and not Amurrica.
Population- the central environmental problem. Why. Its pretty self-fucking explanatory, that’s why. The guy up there was right, Earth can’t handle no mo’; overpopulation leaves limited resources, leads to an intense struggle to survive- which… is why The Hunger Games was so popular. Its the next step in Evolution. Unless the rapture happens. Then about 4 people are going to go to heaven and the rest of us are going into the games.
1960- 3 Billion People Existed. 2012- 7 Billion People Existed. (the apocalypse did not happen.)
Conceptually what are we talking about. More people, more consumption, more resources, more waste, more everything- More people; More problems.
Poverty: a conditions in which people are unable to meet their basic needs for food, clothing, shelter, education, or health. 1 in 4 people live in extreme poverty. (less than $2 a day): 3.3 Billion People. Poverty is associated with short life expectancy, Illiteracy, inadequate access to health services, safe water, balanced nutrition. Development Levels: High, Middle, Low: Just like you’d expect- Highly developed countries are complex with industrialized bases, low rates of population growth, high per person incomes- about 18% of the world’s population U.S., Canada, Japan, most of Europe- (talking on a global level- quite well off). Poor Countries: 82% of the world’s population are moderately developed, which is a little bit more than less developed. Medium levels in industrialization, lower per person incomes, fews opportunities for Education and Health care- we are talking Mexico, Turkey, South Africa, Thailand. Less Developed- low levels of industrialization, high population growth…. Then we looked at Material World, by Peter Wenzel- which is really interesting to look at if you ever get the chance. This guy got families from across the global to take all of their personal belongings and put them out in the street then he photographed the family in front of them. So starting from highly developed countries, US, Japan, Mexico, and working our way day to middle, Samoa, and lower, Bhutan, Mali, we saw what people had and what they didn’t- in material items- When my classmates saw that Bhutan families didn’t have much they would say things like, oh that really sucks- but apparently not. Bhutan was just ranking the happiest place to live in the world.