The European Search for Stability: 1920-1939 (Highlights) Chapter 27

  • Private citizens could not provide all the money needed to finance four years of war
  • The 1924 Dawes Plan aimed to end inflation and restore economic prosperity in Germany by giving Germany a more modest and realistic schedule of payments and by extending a loan from U.S. banks to get payments started. 
  • October 1929 the stock market in United States collapsed. 
  • The Great Depression was mores serious in extent and duration than any depression before or since. 
  • The great prosperity of the 1920s had vanished overnight. 
  • The Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act, passed by the U.S. Congress in 1930, created an impenetrable tariff fortress against agricultural and manufactured imports. 
  • In 1932-1933 the Depression reached it nadir and became a global phenomenon. 
  • Leon Trotsky (1879-1940)
  • Nikolai Burkharin (1888-1938)
  • Joseph Stalin (1879-1953)
  • Lenin’s primary goal was to stabilize Bolshevik rule in its progress toward socialism. He recognized that nothing could be achieved without the peasants.
  • NEP (New Economic Policy, emerged summer 1921.
  • By 1928, the NEP was in trouble. Stalin: general secretary of the Communist part of the Soviet Union. Under his supervision the state intervened to prevent peasants from disposing of their own grain surpluses.
  • The cult of Stalin coincided with the First Five Year Plan (1929-1932), which launched Stalin’s program of rapid industrialization. 
  • Collectivization: and to the deportation of kulaks, the derisive term for wealthy peasants that literally means “tight-fisted ones.” Meant misery for 25 million peasants families who suffered under it.
  • The Great Purge: Stalin banishes enemies to camps.
  • Fascism promised what liberal democratic societies failed to deliver: a way out of the economic and political morass. 
  • The Fascist Party, led by Benito Mussolini (1882-1945), entered politics in 1920 by attacking the large Socialist and Popular (Catholic) Parties. 
  • On October 28, 1922, the Fascists, still a minority party, undertook their famous March on Rome, which followed similar Fascist takeovers in Milan and Bologna. 
  • Destruction and violence became fascism’s most successful tools for securing political power.
  • Squadristi: armed bands of Fascists thugs
  • Mussolini made Italy into a one-party dictatorship. 
  • The Italian army defeated the forces of Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie (1930-1974).
  • Weimar Republic, new German government 1919: fiscal problems
  • in 1923, Hitler, now leading a small National Socialist German Workers party, the Nazis, attempted to seize control of the Munich municipal government. Effort failed, imprisonment, 1s.Volume Mein Kampf is written. 
  • The Nazi part received its heaviest support from farmers, small businessmen, civil servants, and young people. 
  • Third Reich
  • Lebensraum (“living state”) rearmament and economic recovery. 
  • 1936 Hitler’s 4-year plan
  • Ministry of Propaganda under Joseph Goebeels (1897-1945)
  • Kristallnacht (“night of broken glass”)
  • 1936: New premier, Leon Blum (1872-1950) France. economic reforms, Popular Front. 
  • Ramsay McDonald, The National Government, Stanley Baldwin
  • John Maynard Keyes (1883-1946) urged government spending to stimulate consumer demand
  • Sir Oswald Mosley (1896-1980) promoted a fascist response to Britain’s problems. 
  • The Spanish Civil War
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