The Cold War and Postwar Economic Recovery: 1945-1970 (Highlights) Chapter 29:

  • Political disorganization reigned in Berlin
  • Cold War-developed-differing Russian and American notions regarding the economic reconstruction of Europe.
  • Gross National Product (GNP) 
  • Cold War was related to the economic and foreign policy goals of both superpowers.
  • The Division of Germany: Allied Control Commission, keeping with the decisions, Yalta
  • Eastern Europe and the Soviet Bloc.: Soviet-dominated governments established: Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania. 1947. Czechoslovakia, 1948. 
  • NATO and Other Treaty Alliances: Containment, United States entered- military alliances around the world. Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, United Kingdom: NATO 1949. +Greece, Turkey 1952, + West Germany 1955, + Spain 1982. 
  • Charles de Gaulle, president French Fifth Republic, first French atomic bomb 1960.
  • The Southeast Asia Treat Organization (SEATO) 1954 & Baghdad Pact of 1955.
  • 1955- Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, East Germany: Warsaw Pact
  • Nuclear Club: first satellite, Sputnik I, 1957.
  • 1974: Nuclear Club included: Great Britain, France, the People’s Republic of China, India. 
  • The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963.
  • Decolonization and the Cold War: Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971) 
  • Asia: Mohandas Gandhi (1861-1948)
  • Civil wars erupted in China, Burma, Korea, and Indochina.
  • China, a communist state following the victory of Mao Zedong (1893-1976) in 1949.
  • Africa: Patric Lumumba (1924-1961) became the first prime minister of the Republic of the Congo 
  • Kwame Nkrumah (1909-1972) of Ghana -“neocolonialism”
  • Jomo Kenyatta (1894-1978) of Kenya, Nkrumah founded the Pan-African Federation, which promoted African nationalism.
  • The French, under leadership of General Charles de Gaulle, ended the war-agreed to Algeria’s independence-1962.
  • The Middle East: President Gama Abdel Nasser (1918-1970) oversaw the nationalization of the Suez Canal. 
  • Latin America: Fidel Castro
  • Economic Challenge: Economists judged that Europe would need at least 25 years to regain its prewar economic capacity.
  • The Economic Solution: The Marshal Plan June 5,1947, U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall (1880-1959)-Marshall Plan
  • Office of European Economic Cooperation (OEEC).
  • Modernization of economies through centrally coordinated planning made Europe once again a major contender in the international economic arena.  major exception-West Germany-endorsed a free market policy.
  • European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) & European Economic Community (EEC)
  • Japan’s Recovery: American general Douglas MacArthur-The Supreme Commander-Allied Powers-mission in Japan was to impose rapid economic change from above. 1968- Japan largest industrial nation in the world.
  • The Soviet Path to Economic Recovery: 1949-USSR established Council for Mutual Economic Assistance- or Comecon, Stalin’s response to US Marshall plan.
  • De-stalinization: beginnings of a thaw in censorship and repression.
  • Krushchev: head of Communist Party, De-stalinization also took place in Eastern Europe.
  • Imre Nagy (1896-1958) liberal Communist
  • Eastern Bloc Economies and Dissent: East Berlin saw increasing numbers of its population-educated-professional class-The Berlin wall-103 miles.
  • 1968-Alexander Dubcek, Czech part secretary-worked on popular desire for nationalism.
  • The Prague Uprising
  • The Welfare State, “baby boom”, Pronatalism, women’s protest, youth culture and dissent. 
  • Prague Spring uprising
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