Global Conflagration: World War II, 1939-1945 (Highlights) Chapter 28

  • Germany, Italy, and Japan: Axis Powers
  • British Empire, Soviet Union, United States: Grand Alliance
  • Japanese economy depended on Manchuria for raw materials and on Chine for markets. 
  • Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo, 1931-1932, Japanese withdrew from the League, Japanese troops began undeclared war in China in 1937.
  • Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940) reason with Hitler- Chamberlain convinced France and Czechoslovakia to yield to Hitler’s demands.
  • Mussolini and French prime minister, Edouard Daladier (1884-1970) joined Hitler and Chamberlain at Munich: Appeasement at Munich.
  • Hitler cast aside the Munich agreement by annihilating Czechoslovakia. Lithuania was pressured into surrendering Memel to Germany, Hitler demanded control of Gdansk and Polish corridor.
  • May 1939-Pact of Steel-Mussolini’s Italy. Hitler & Stalin -Non-Agression Pact of 1939.
  • Blitzkreig
  • Marginot Line
  • War in Europe: Germany drove its tanks-panzers through the French defenses at Sedan in eastern France.
  • Fall of France: Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970) set up a Free French government in exile.
  • German air force under Reichsmarshal Hermann Goring (1893-1946) air attacks against Britain: Battle of Britain.
  • Churchill succeeded Chamberlain: 1940. Yugoslavia and Greece fell in April 1941.
  • The Balkans, necessity of protecting resources. 
  • Josip Broz (1892-1980) alis Tito. 
  • Until 1941, Nazi policies against the Jews were often uncoordinated and unfocused. 
  • The Final Solution: the total extermination of European Jews. 
  • Holocaust
  • the German army concentrated first on destroying Soviet armed forces and capturing Leningrad in the north and the oil-rich Caucasus in the south. 
  • German Offensive and Reversals: General Gyorgi Zhukov (1896-1974) Russian troops pushed the Germans back-
  • Soviet Patriotism: There was a third advantage that hitler ignored: the Soviet people’s determination to sacrifice everything for the war effort. “The Great Patriotic War”
  • US Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act: 1941.
  • Japan Attacks: U.S. General Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964) surrendered the Philippines to the Japanese on Jan. 2, 1942.
  • Germany declares war on US: January 11, 1941.
  • Erwin Rommel (1891-1944) master strategist of tank warfare, to help Italians take control of Suez Canal
  • Desert War, August 1942 the Allied forces, command of Bernard Montgomery (1887-1976), launched offensive at El Alamein. 
  • U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890-1969): Normandy 
  • Japanese Hegemony in Asia: The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, 1945
  • Winning the war in the Pacific: Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, US Naval Forces: Admiral Chester Nimitz (1885-1966) inflicted a defeat on Japanese navy from which it could not recover. Battle of Midway. 
  • Conquest of Saipan, Iwo Jima, 1945, B-29 Bombers
  • Japanese surrendered unconditionally on September 2, 1945 on the battleship Missouri in Tokyo.
  • Coast: 50 million lives lost
  • The Big Three: United States, Great Britain, Soviet Union
  • 1945:  Teheran, then Yalta, then Potsdam.
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