European History: War and Revolution 1914-1920 (Highlights) Chapter 26

  • The alliance system was expected to defend the peace by defining the conditions of war.
  • Triple Entente: France, Great Britain,  Russ
  • Triple alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
  • the alliance system stood as both a defense against war and an invitation to it.
  • The Schlieffen Plan: Alfred von Schlieffen’s (1833-1913) : in the likely event of war with Russisa, Germany would launch a devastating offensive against France. 
  • Mobilization would mean war.
  • Assassination at Sarajevo: Gavrilo Princip killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
  • One France declared war the domino effect of the alliance system was triggered.
  • Allies: as Tripe Entente came to be known.
  • Ottoman Empire joined central powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary.
  • By the time the United States joined the fray in 1917, the war had become a world war.
  • Technology and the Trenches: New weapons: The shovel and the machine gun transformed war.
  • concentration of artillery. increased use of poison gas, unrestricted submarine warfare in desperate attempts to break the deadlock caused by meeting armed force with  force.
  • Barbed Wire
  • First Battle of the Marne “race to the sea”
  • War on the Eastern Front: Paul von Hindenburg (1847-1934): Victory of Tannenberg, devastating blow to Russian forces at Masurian Lakes.
  • War on the Western Front: Long periods of inactivity were punctuated by orgies of heavy bloodletting.
  • Verdun: General Henri Philippe Petain (1856-1951)
  • The Somme: Rover Nivelle-General Douglas Haig (1861-1928) -British expenditure forces-Passchendaele offensive-400,000 British soldiers slaughtered for insignificant territorial gain. 
  • War on Periphery: key Dalmation islands
  • War in the Ottoman Empire: Amiralty Winston Churchill (1874-1965)
  • War at Sea: The only major naval battle of the Great War, Battle of Jutland in the North Sea
  • relied on new weapon: submarine: U-boats-German submarines were called-torpedoed six million tons of allied shipping in 1917.
  • The Great War became a war of peoples, not just armies. History’s first Total War.
  • Ministry of Munitions: coordinate military needs with the armaments industry: Llyod George (1862-1945)
  • Silencing Dissent: British foreign secretary Arthur Balfour (1848-1930) worked with zionist leaders in 1917 in drawing up the Balfour Declaration- “look with favor” on the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. 
  • The Russian Revolution and Allied Victory: Tsar Nicholar II (1894-2927) 
  • The Last Tsar: Bloody Sunday
  • Factory committees, trade unions, and soviets, or elected workers’ councils, proliferated.
  • Dual Power: Provisional Government- Prince Georgi Lvov (1861-1925) Aleksandr Kerenski (1881-1970)
  • The other center authority was the soviets-
  • it was the Marxists, or Social Democrats, who had the greatest impact on the direction of the revolution
  • Mensheviks (meaning minority)-willing to cooperate
  • Bolsheviks (meaning majority) -actually minority: dedicated themselves to preparation for revolutionary upheaval. 
  • Lenin and the Opposition to war: Bolsheviks Leader: Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (1870-1924) 
  • April These: promised Russian people peace,land,bread.
  • July Days
  • The October Revolution: Lenin planned, Leon Trotsky- military action.
  • The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: March 1918, Judged as betrayal by Allies and inside some Russian army officers
  • The new Soviet state used state police to suppress all opposition,.
  • Lusitania: 1915 Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924)
  • The United States Declares War
  • German Defeat: Ludendorff struck-Allied line held
  • November 11, 1918: armistice signed by representatives of the German and Allied forces too effect.
  • Settling the peace: Council of Four: Premier Georges Clemenceau, Prime Minister David Llyod George, Prime Minister Vittorie Emanuele Orlando, & President Woodrow Wilson 
  • Wilson’s Fourteen Points
  • The League of Nations, which the United States refused to join in spite of Wilson’s advocacy, was intended to arbitrate all future disputes among states and to keep the peace.
  • Treaties & Territories: Treaty of Versailles June 28, 1919
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