European History 17th Century- Modern Day: WWII Casualties & Cold War

End of War World II Casualty Rates: This is straight up how man men under arms were dead.

USSR: 7 Million

Germany: 3.5 Million

Chinese: 2.2 Million

Japanese: 1.3 Million (culture of sacrifice for country, does not include atom bomb deaths)

British: 350,000

U.S.: 300,000

French: 200,000

The Cold War: (Part One) After WWII world changes, makes Europe less central to part of story. 1. Planning the peace: Problem that wartime alliance between US & Soviet began to fall before the end of the war. US & Soviets both hated Hitler which was the only reason they became allies. A lot of things for which they distrust one another. The two don’t really see a way to co-exist. The politics that come with the economic system. What kind of alliance is this if we lost so many more than they do: Soviets. US has basic assumption that Soviet would export communism. Looks like a clear power grab of Europe by Stalin and US sees proof of this in wake of WWII.  (?)

Yalta & Potsdam: Who is there & what kind of aims do they have? 1. Yalta: Stalin, Churchill, & Roosevelt were the big three there. But by Potsdam FDR had died so he was replaced by this guy, Truman. Churchill was voted out and replaced by someone else. The first three did not trust each other but they understood one another. Not so much at Potsdam, they didn’t really get along there. Stalin wanted more communist states. Britain & US wanted nothing to do with that, but there’s really not much more they can do to change it (can’t stomach another war). So they encourage western style democracy in west. Potsdam: the meeting was more confrontational; Truman came knowing he had a nuclear weapon and no one else did which he thought gave him the upper hand. He is belligerent to Stalin. Stalin being Stalin is belligerent back. No one blinked, nothing was solved, nothing is negotiated. It is left to what actually played out on the ground.

II. Confrontation over Europe: A.) West: Democratic States. B.) East: Stalinization C.) Soviet-Expansionism(?) D.) Marshall Plan (1947) E.) A Tale of Two Germanies. F) Military Rivalry 1.NATO (1948) 2.Warsaw Pact (1955) .

C. Soviet Troops occupied all of these places: Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Yugoslavia-Tito, Poland, Bulgaria, Albania. (Played favorite to local communists until they have enough supplies to take over.) In all of these places immediately 5 year plans were instituted in Industry. Hard to see as anything other than Soviet expansionism. They have half of Europe, with his homegrown communist party essentially made to puppet states and this leads to growing paranoia in the west. Stalin did what he wanted to do, make a buffer between him and the west.

Truman Doctrine—- (says-?)

—-fights against armed minorities. (This is when we decided we were policeman of the world). Huge change to foreign policy.

In 1949 Soviet exploded their first atomic weapon. US was no longer the only member of the nuclear club. Both superpowers now had nuclear weapons. From now on the threat of nuclear war was always. By 1949 Soviet Expansionism became an assumption.

D.) Marshall Plan: offered US capital to our own allies in western Europe first. Most money coming the from the government not private investors. It is for re-building, it is very clearly painted in the lens of we don’t want to leave these colonies vulnerable so communism would not look appealing to them. This was offered to eastern Europeans but they refused. (why?) Instead Comecon(?) 1947, but this did nothing for Soviet Union. The Marshall Plan did create a legacy of friendship until the 2nd Gulf War. “They actually put their money in to help us recover from the war.”

E.) What happened to Germany: Became the most significant piece of real estate in this power struggle. Four nations will each have a zone of control in Germany called 4 Zones of Operation. By 1948 this problem of what to do with Germany will come to its 1st crisis. There are two Germanies, one controlled by US and one controlled by the Soviets. in 1948 Soviets decided this was unacceptable. In 1948 they blockaded Berlin, trying to for US out of Berlin but stressed they did not want to go to war over it. The US found a different way. The Berlin Airlift: US starts flying over Berlin and dropping food and supplies and soon they dropped enough supplies that and airport was built. This kept people in West Berlin fed. 13,000 tons of supplies were dropped daily. in 1949 the Soviets realized blockade is not working so they lift it. Both sides sit at negotiation table and figure what is going to happen to Germany. West Germany is democratic, East Berlin is communist: Berlin is officially divided.

Pick up on Military Rivalry, Friday.



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