Pre-Colonial Africa: Islam

Goals of Muslim scholars: Eradicate moral laxity, excess of rulers, unfair taxation, social inequality. What they considered, were anti-islamic leading figures: Sheikh Uthman Don Fodio. Hausaland: mid 19th Century, 5th Phase: Opposition to European Imperialism. (Responding to crisis of trans-atlantic slave trade. In terms of historical thinking, we need to think in terms of context.)

Fodio’s father was a Muslim scholar who migrated from Futa Toro- a place where slaves were very rebellious & he brought that rebellious nature with him. So from early age Fodio grew up in a family or rebels. Learned Islam at early age under is father. He fitted into an already institutionalized system of learning, in early life he aspired to be muslim scholar like this father.

Contents & Methods of his teachings: Situational problems: The righty & venality of Ulma Islam, —- unbelief, Local custom and tradition, Mass Ignorance of Islam

Which one could see as noble goals for Islam at this time. Desired results: Reform of Islam. Conversion of non-muslim to Islam. Fairness. Growth of Don Fodio’s movement 1774-89: Intense preparation 1789-1795. Involvement of GOBIR ruler. Attacked Ulma for not teaching Islam. Caliphate- title- no king in Islam. Fodio taught his son to rise to Caliphate. Fodio became very famous because he death with situational problems: what he saw as reality of the time. GOBIR — King of —- Invited Fodio together with other Islam scholars of his court and bribed Fodio to leave GOBIR. Don’ Fodio’s demand: He wanted freedom to call people to God, no official should discourage people willing to join & carry out Islam, respect anyone wearing a turban or veil, free political prisoners, fair taxation & social equity among believers. (Sometimes people would like to maintain ignorance in politics to maintain fear. Brainwashing us to accept the status quo.)

1795-1804: Violence & flight- HIJRA. Traveling, preaching, teaching and writing: Fodio’s strategy. He insisted on the Quran as source of authority, attacked —- of Ulma, most of whom were associated with rulers court, the Ulmas wanted to perpetrate the status quo, they justified political corrupt and immorality. Fuse religious and political authority together, why is this important, prestigious to hang out in ruler’s court. (you want chicken, its there.) Cross on the crown, a symbol enough that they were chosen by God to be represented on Earth. They are going to sell to your the notion, the meek shall inherit the Earth and by this they are saying, you are poor, please don’t rebel.

Belief & Unbelief: “forbidding evil in the land of evil is evil.” Justification for Pagan practices. connected to unveiled: Fodio talked about sinners and unbelievers. Mass ignorance of Islam among believers. drinking wine is not allowed, seizure of property, adultery, …”just keep to your little corner and be happy.”

1804 King GOBIR for Fodio to flight known as HIJRA. (what he just flew away?) this flight attracted many devout followers. By 1810: All warring Hausa city states had been defeated- Sokoto Caliphate, with its capital in Sokoto, was formed. In 1815 Fodio settled Sokoto. He built schools for instruction and many students were attracted to the. He traveled wide and far. He established Mosque, a place to worship.

“That illusion called gold.”

“Most Kings & Queens of wherever, very very predatory.”

“Oh no this thing does not sit well with us so we are having a crisis. We blame this man.”

Go to: Topkapi Palace, Turkey

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