Pre-Colonial Africa: Jihad Movements

Continued mostly to coastal part of Africa: Slave Trade. Atlantic Slave Trade did not destroy inner trading states of Africa. Timbuktu & Jenne survived their heyday. The revival of cities and states began with the revival of Islam- the Jihad Movement.  Most of revival movements are being organized by pastoral and rural community leaders. Expansion of Sufism responsible for expansion of spread of Islam to Rural communities. Revivalist movements were work of Islamic scholars & warriors. Wherever people move, they move with ideas. Leaders (with in context of that time) called attention to laxity of local authorities to Islamic standard of behavior and governance. Muslims were being captures sold into silvery: common complaint- this was un-Islamic & violation of Islamic community standard. The creation of Islamic states offered the best hope of establishing security in the face of chaos endangered by the trade in slaves. Significant: Jihad of the Sword. J.M. showed not only a muslim consciousness but a growing awareness of islamic political, religious, and social system. Futa JaLon- 1st Jihad, Futa Tora- 2nd Jihad.

As groups emerge opposing they will win a lot of converts… 3rd Jihad movement take place in Northern Nigeria & Southern Niger, Uthman Don Fodio, was the leader. He would be very active in state of GOBIR and get into conflict with ruing class, creating the movement. Groups would leave conscious and you were placed within what’s right and wrong and you have to decided what to do about it.  History of west Africa: Western part of the Nile River Valley, mix of cultures. Kanur, Hausa, Wolof, Fulani….Leading Hausa City, most groups located there. State of GOBIR. They went where they did and took their ingenuity with them. Impact would be found later on or immediately. Can’t bomb out knowledge. Economy: Trans-Saharan- salt & gold manufactured products including iron. Spirituality- Islam and traditional spirituality. Chinese came in second half of 14th Century with guns. They said to Nile people: You can say whatever you want, we will not compromise.


Began to spread in Africa with Trans Atlantic Slave trade- in course of 12 Centuries,  it brought Islamic centers of learning in South Africa.  Built States. Produced Islamic scholars of international reputation. (altogether, questions, concerns, any one lost.) Phases of the Spread of Islam. 1st Phase 9-13th Century: Itinerant traders, Indigenous converts, there was a spread of some faith whether people took it seriously or not. These would change dynamics of general relations with west Africa, Arabia, Europe, Islamic revival would go to where we call Bosnia- close to European gate. 2nd Phase 14-16th Century: Muslim states, Mali & Songhay emerge, Kano & Katina become Islamized, Centers of Islamic learning taught many scholars. 3rd Phase: Moroccan invasion of Songhay, Timbuktu was sacked, scholars were displaced. Phase 4: Muslim scholars led the Jihad Movements. 


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